Echocardiogram (Echo) is an imaging modality, performed for suspected problems with the valves or chambers of the heart or if heart problems are the cause of symptoms such as shortness of breath or chest pain.
A technician (Sonographer or Cardiologist) spreads gel on your chest and then presses a device known as a transducer firmly against your skin (painless), aiming an ultrasound beam through your chest to your heart. The transducer records the sound wave echoes from your heart. A computer converts the echoes into moving images on a monitor.
There are many indications (why one would need echo) to perform Echocardiogram, including:
- Look for the cause of abnormal heart sounds (murmurs), an enlarged heart, unexplained chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeats or swelling of the legs which could be due to Heart Failure. Some heart murmurs are harmless and the definite way to ascertain that is by echocardiogram
- High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) by checking the thickness and movement of the heart wall.
- Look at the heart valves (native or artificial) and their function.It can show either stenosis (incomplete opening of the valve) or Regurgitation (leaking of the valve due to valve not closing tightly)
- Measure the size and shape of the heart’s chambers.
- Check the ability of your heart chambers to pump blood (cardiac function). During an echocardiogram, your doctor can calculate how much blood your heart is pumping during each heartbeat (ejection fraction). Ejection fraction is usually low in heart failure.
- Detect a disease that affects the heart muscle and the way it pumps, such as cardiomyopathy.
- Look for blood clots and tumors inside the heart. This is especially important if someone has suffered stroke or TIA (mini-stroke)
- Look for congenital heart defects or to check the effectiveness of previous surgery to repair a congenital heart defect.
- Check how well your heart works after a heart attack.
- Identify the specific cause of heart failure.
- Look for a collection of fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion ).
- Look for a thickening of the lining (pericardium) around the heart.
Here is an example of Echocardiogram loop:
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